How a Plasma Cutter Works? Let’s Find out [TOP GUIDE]

Plasma Cutting is a technique that is used to cut any conductive metals including aluminum, steel, copper, brass, etc. They can cut all sizes whether it is thick or thin.

It is possible to do plasma cutting by hand using a plasma torch, which is also known as plasma guns, arcs or cutters.

You can find various variety of best plasma cutters depending on the size of metal you are going to cut. Additionally, plasma cutting techniques can be used in industries too.

Mostly CNC plasma cutting is used which is used to cut from digital files onto a bigger sheet of metal.

These procedures make plasma cutting accurate in profile cutting. In comparison to other techniques such as laser cutting and water jet cutting, Plasma cutting is much cheaper, and it is a quick process, especially when done by hand.

Components of Plasma Cutting System

Plasma Torch

The plasma torch is used to give the appropriate arrangement and cooling of the parts which is used in the process.

The parts needed for the plasma cutting system are the whirling ring, nozzle, and electrode.

Furthermore, an extra protecting cap can also be utilized to improve the quality of cutting, and every single part of it is held together by inner and outer holding caps.

Arc Starting Console

An Arc starting console circuit generates a powerful AC voltage of around 5000 VAC which creates a spark in the plasma torch to develop a plasma arc.

Power Supply

The plasma control system changes a single or 2 phase Ac line into a steady, consistent, and smooth Dc voltage with a power of 200 to 400DC voltage.

The higher voltage is beneficial as a Plasma arc is dependent on it throughout the cutting. It additionally manages the output required based on the type of material.

Categories of Plasma Cutting

Conventional Plasma System

It regularly uses shop air as the gas of plasma, and the opening of the nozzle essentially characterizes the state of the plasma arc.

It gives approximately 12-30 amp per square inch. The systems that prefer to work done by hand uses the Conventional Plasma System.

Precision Plasma System

This type of system is well known for its high density. It is structured and designed to create acute, and best quality metal cutting that is attainable with plasma.

The consumable parts and the torch are complicated, and new parts are added to tighten the state of the arc further.

It is a consistent, accurate and powerful system with a power of 40-50k amp per square inch.

Different gasses including oxygen, nitrogen, and nitrogen, argon, and hydrogen blend are used as plasma gas for the best possible results on a huge number of conductive materials.

How Plasma Cutter Works?

It works by providing an electric arc through a compressed opening which passes through a gas. The gas mainly is nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and shop air, etc.

It increases the temperature of the gas which helps it to convert it into the 4th state of matter. After solid-liquid and gas, scientists have defined this gas as the 4th state of the matter. The electric conductivity of plasma helps the arc for the cutting of metals.

The nozzle gas which goes through, helps it to squeeze by at a rapid speed, the same as the air which passes through a venture in a carburetor.

This timely, powerful gas helps to cut through a melted metal. Moreover, the gas is conducted around the area of cutting to provide a shield to cut.

Nowadays, a Pilot arc between the nozzle and electrode is used to ionize the gas, and it generates the plasma gas before the arc transfers.

When the Pilot arc reaches the workpiece (which is linked to ground through the slats of the cutting table), the latest path moves to the workpiece, and the pilot arc replaces the higher frequency.

Plasma gas is much more powerful and hot as compared to oxyacetylene flame as it has the power of 20,000F, whereas the other one is just 6000F.

This exceptional heat helps for an accurate and rapid cut without any contortion. One most important thing about plasma cutters which is not discussed is its safety.

There is a huge risk of damage from electric shock as compared to welding machine because of the high voltage on the torch. Wearing gloves is necessary to hold the torch; otherwise, you can suffer from a fatal shock.

Types of work are Plasma Cutting used for:

Plasma Cutting can be used for all types of metal manufacturing projects and is mainly used in construction-based projects or rescue yards.

Designers and craftsmen mostly use plasma cutting in signage and making models. It is also utilized in making embellishing panels for projects.

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